i u e ɑ o
new Ipa: m n b d g p pʰ t tʰ ɸ v z k kʰ h j l s ʃ w r ʦ ʧ
verb tense present: -0/-a past: -ke future: -ne ni jansi cuer menace. i byjohn gift wasoffered. I was offered a gift by john.
ni janis cuerar turke. i johndat(to john) gifts gave i gave johndat gifts.
Dative = to johndat= to john
plural markings ar, er, ur
Passive Past Turche was given Active Past turke gave Active Future turune will give
ni janis cuerar tur. ni janis cuerar turke ni janis cuerar turne. ni jansi cuerar turce. i johnDAT gifts togive. i johnDAT gifts gave i johnDAT gifts willgive. i byjohn gifts wasgiven.
turu mlaka am. giving is nice.
A-Stem: zin(a) 'make' → zina-ce 'made'
E-stem: vati(e) 'dedicate' → vatie-χe 'was dedicated'
I-stem: al(i) 'present' → ali-ce 'presented'
U-stem: ziχ(u) 'write' → ziχu-χe 'was written'
an noskmeti kai amune. (he hospital.at good will.be) he will be good at the hospital.
Koine -> Upper Isti changes: sound changes /sk/ -> /z/ /k/ -> /g/ ai->/e/ ending ti -> ei open vowels -> back of mouth u'e-> ua tense goes in front of verb. En nozmey ge n'amua. -> Upper Western Isti: é nōmey ge amun.
dative case? clenaris? clenarasi?
she likes making bread an tunva aru mos. (she bread make.verbalnoun like)
'I was lying in bed with my clothes and shoes on.'[ I was lying in bed. Ni kreva ti cesce. Ni (with my clothes and shoes on) krevati cesce. rucak cipelum (clothes and shoes) ni rucaka cipeluma krevati cesce. (?)
She likes making bread with john An (along with john) tunva aru mos
he died going to the hospital an noskme lupu phavas. he hospital dieverbalnoun going.
in this house, you(plural) must wear clothes and shoes. in this house, you(plural) clothes and shoes and wear must. per ecalthi, unu rucak cipelum ekarri.
Maria is giving a gift to John. Maria Janis cûer turan. (MariaNOM JohnDAT Gift.sg give.in process of)
Maria is at the/a Hospital maria noskmeti egu. (MariaNOM Hospital.Location is.physicalplace)
Maria was on the bed. Maria krevati eguke. (MariaNOM bed.location is.pasttense.physicalplace)
I am not at school. ni ekolti eguei. (I.Nom school.location to be at.neg)
John is being at home. Jan peri egan.
He is wearing shoes an cipel ekaran (he shoes is wearing)
Sell your gift to a buyer at a good gain. (at a good gain) (to a buyer) (your gift) (sell imperative) With a good gain, to a buyer your gift sell. gain.with good, buyer.to gift you.of sell.imp mekuena kai idvaniti cuer unal kav.
ni atis janal kukiar turuke. I gave cookies to john's mother. i mother.dat john.gen cookie.plural give.past
chora baskis kukiar turuke I gave cookies to the basque country (country of basque).
pul arabal: kizkuna tuec inalum zagum. (pul arab al: kizkuna tue c in al um zag um) pul arabbal: kizkuna tuec innallum zaggum.
we saw him constructing the arena. me enas phasena cerias malake.
hello, I am giving clothes and shoes to children for christmas. kaire, ni kristmasis husiuris recak cipelum turan.
I spend five hours of the day working at a computer. ni hur maph tinal tolnälti dule. i hour five day.gen computer.at work*
Switch the lights off! salaris izal az!
The girl at the booth sold fifty bonds. Talitha busuthi bonuar mapal kavuke.
Reflexive Pronouns: he washed himself. an enas garake.
he will give himself a book an enas zikhna turne.
I remembered to study. I remembered i need to study. ni zikhit eginu tudas. I study todo remembering.
salt -> salty sot -> sotiu
genetive: -s -al dative: -is locative: -i instrumental: -a
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